Виды контактной сварки

17.06.2013

Основных видов три: стыковая, точечная, шовная (роликовая).   Контактная сварка и все ее виды очень распространены в промышленном производстве, в машиностроении,  авиационной промышленности. Широко применяются стационарные машины и специальные сварочные стенды, а также подвесные клещи для точечной. Количество тепла, которое выделяется в зоне сварки, определяют в соответствии с законом  Джоуля-Ленца: 


 


Q=IквRtI-сварочный ток, АR-сопротивление на пути электрического тока, Омt-время протекания тока, сек. 


В результате высокой плотности в точках контакта, металлические детали разогреваются  до термопластичного состояния. В процессе непрерывного сдавливании нагретых деталей возникают все новые и новые точки контакта, вплоть до образования межатомных связей.


Параметры контактной сварки: сила сварного тока, длительность его импульса, усилие сжатия деталей.


Стыковая сварка соединяет сечение площадью до 100000мм. Контактно стыковая соединяет кольца, рельсы, арматуру для железобетона, трубчатые конструкции,  валы. Характерная для машины стыковой сварки плотность тока должна составлять 10-20А/мм кв - при оплавлении стыка и до 40-60А/мм кв при осадки стыка. Скорость осадки-1-8мм/с; величина давления может составлять до 100-350кг. Трансформаторные машины контактной точечной сварки с водяным охлаждением, характеризуются  высокой силой тока от 1000 до 100000 А, при очень малом напряжении (1-12В). Точечная и шовная (роликовая) похожи по принципу, но шовная - это вид точечной сварки, при котором отдельные сварочные точки (литые зоны) частично перекрывают одна другую, при этом образуется сварной шов. Практически это достигается выполнением электрода в виде плоского ролика.


 


Т.к. импульсы тока по времени малы - менее 1с, применяются специальные прерыватели тока.


Аппарат точечной сварки включают и выключают со стороны первичной обмотки. В процессе сварки необходимо периодическое включение и выключение тока. Для этого применяются разнообразные прерыватели - электромагнитные контакторы, электронные, а также ионные приборы (игнотроны).

Источник: http://www.kit-complect.ru/

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